Problemas Impressão 3D – Extrusão inconsistente

Extrusão inconsistente – Para que a sua impressora possa criar peças precisas, ela precisa de ser capaz de extrudir uma quantidade muito consistente de plástico. Se essa extrusão variar em diferentes partes da impressão, ela afetará a qualidade final da impressão. A extrusão inconsistente geralmente pode ser identificada observando a impressora de perto enquanto ela é impressa. Por exemplo, se a impressora está a imprimir uma linha reta com 20 mm de comprimento, mas você percebe que a extrusão parece bastante irregular ou parece variar de tamanho, provavelmente está a enfrentar este problema. Por isso, resumimos as causas mais comuns de extrusão inconsistente e explicamos como cada uma delas pode ser tratada.

Soluções Comuns

O filamento fica preso ou emaranhado

A primeira coisa que deve verificar é o carretel de plástico que está a ser utilizado pela impressora. É necessário garantir que esta bobina pode girar livremente e que o plástico é facilmente desenrolado da bobina. Se o filamento ficar emaranhado ou o carretel tiver muita resistência para girar livremente, afetará a uniformidade da extrusão do filamento pelo bico. Ou então se a sua impressora incluir um tubo Bowden (um pequeno tubo oco pelo qual o filamento é direcionado), verifique também se o filamento se move facilmente através deste tubo sem muita resistência. Se houver muita resistência no tubo, tente limpá-lo ou aplicar alguma lubrificação dentro do tubo.

Extrusora entupida

Se o filamento não estiver emaranhado e puder ser facilmente puxado para dentro da extrusora, a próxima coisa a verificar é o próprio bico. É possível que haja pequenos detritos ou plástico estranho dentro do bico que esteja impedindo a extrusão adequada. Uma maneira fácil de verificar isso é usar o painel de controle da máquina para extrudir manualmente um pouco de plástico do bico. Observe para garantir que o plástico está a extrudar de maneira uniforme e consistente. Se notar problemas, pode ser necessário limpar o bico. Consulte o fabricante para obter instruções sobre como limpar corretamente o interior do bico.

Altura da camada muito baixa

Se o filamento estiver a girar livremente e a extrusora não estiver entupida, pode ser útil verificar algumas configurações no seu programa. Por exemplo, se estiver a tentar imprimir a uma altura extremamente baixa da camada, como 0,01 mm, há muito pouco espaço para o plástico sair do bico. Essa folga abaixo do bico tem apenas 0,01 mm de altura, o que significa que o plástico pode ter dificuldade em sair da extrusora. Verifique novamente se está a usar uma altura de camada razoável para a sua impressora. Se estiver a imprimir numa camada muito baixa, tente aumentar o valor para ver se o problema desaparece.

Largura de extrusão incorreta

Outra configuração para verificar no seu programa é a largura da extrusão que especificou para a sua extrusora. Cada extrusora pode ter a sua própria largura de extrusão exclusiva. Se a largura da extrusão for significativamente menor que o diâmetro do seu bico, isso poderá causar problemas de extrusão. Como regra geral, a largura da extrusão deve estar entre 100-150% do diâmetro do bico. Se a largura da sua extrusão estiver muito abaixo do diâmetro do bico (por exemplo, uma largura de extrusão de 0,2 mm para um bico de 0,4 mm), a extrusora não poderá impulsionar um fluxo consistente de filamento.

Filamento de baixa qualidade

Uma das causas mais comuns de extrusão inconsistente que ainda não mencionamos é a qualidade do filamento com o qual está a imprimir. O filamento de baixa qualidade pode conter aditivos extras que afetam a consistência do plástico. Outros podem ter um diâmetro de filamento inconsistente, o que também causará extrusão inconsistente. Finalmente, muitos plásticos também tendem a se degradar com o tempo. Por exemplo, o PLA tende a absorver a humidade do ar e, com o tempo, isso diminui a qualidade da impressão. É por isso que muitos carretéis de plástico incluem um dessecante na embalagem para ajudar a remover a humidade do carretel. Se acha que o seu filamento pode estar com defeito, tente trocar o carretel por um novo, fechado e de alta qualidade, para verificar se o problema desaparece.

Problemas mecânicos na extrusora

Se verificou tudo acima e ainda está a ter problemas com extrusão inconsistente, convém verificar se há problemas mecânicos com a extrusora. Por exemplo, muitas extrusoras usam uma engrenagem com dentes afiados que mordem o filamento. Isso permite que a extrusora mova o filamento para frente e para trás facilmente. Essas extrusoras também costumam incluir um ajuste que altera a força com que a engrenagem de transmissão é pressionada no filamento. Se essa configuração estiver muito frouxa, os dentes da engrenagem não cortarão o suficiente no filamento, o que afeta a capacidade da extrusora de controlar com precisão a posição do filamento. Verifique com o fabricante se a sua impressora possui um ajuste semelhante.

 

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