Problemas Impressão 3D – Precisão dimensional das suas peças 3D

Precisão dimensional – A precisão dimensional de suas peças 3D pode ser extremamente importante se estiver a criar montagens grandes ou peças que precisam ser ajustadas com precisão. Existem muitos fatores comuns que podem afetar essa precisão, como sub-extrusão ou super-extrusão, contração térmica, entre outros. Alguns programas incluem várias ferramentas para ajudar a lidar com esses problemas comuns; portanto, explicaremos cada uma com mais detalhes abaixo.

Soluções Comuns

Impacto da primeira camada

As configurações da primeira camada podem afetar a precisão dimensional. Se o seu bico estiver muito alto ou muito baixo para a primeira camada da impressão, poderá afetar drasticamente as próximas 10 a 20 camadas da peça. Por exemplo, se estiver a imprimir uma camada de 0,2 mm de espessura, mas o bico estiver a apenas 0,1 mm de distância da cama, esse plástico extra poderá criar uma primeira camada um pouco grande demais. As camadas futuras também podem ser afetadas pelo plástico extra nessa camada, que cria várias camadas grandes demais na parte inferior da peça. Portanto, antes de gastar muito tempo a tentar aperfeiçoar a precisão dimensional das suas impressões, necessita verificar se as medidas não estão a ser afetadas pela posição da primeira camada.

Uma maneira comum de fazer isso é imprimindo um modelo com 50 a 100 camadas e medindo apenas as 20 camadas superiores. Essas camadas superiores estão distantes da primeira camada impressa na cama, minimizando o impacto do posicionamento dos bicos. Antes de prosseguir para as seções abaixo, verifique se suas medidas seguem estas diretrizes.

Sub-extrusão ou super-extrusão

Agora que sabe que está a usar medições precisas que não são afetadas pela posição da primeira camada, a próxima configuração que necessita verificar é o multiplicador de extrusão. Essa configuração afeta a taxa de fluxo de toda a impressão. Se o multiplicador de extrusão for muito baixo, poderá começar a notar vários aspetos como, por exemplo, peças menores que o tamanho pretendido. Se o seu multiplicador de extrusão for muito alto, poderá observar que as camadas superiores que tendem a aumentar para cima e as peças estão maiores do que o pretendido. Então, novamente, antes de prosseguir para as seções abaixo, verifique se o seu multiplicador de extrusão está calibrado corretamente. Para obter mais conselhos sobre esses tópicos, consulte os artigos Sub-extrusão e Extrusão excessiva.

Erro dimensional constante

Se concluiu as etapas acima e as impressões ainda não estão dimensionadas corretamente, algumas aplicações oferece a capacidade de compensar com precisão as bordas da sua impressão para explicar essas diferenças. Essa configuração é rotulada como “compensação de tamanho horizontal”. Por exemplo, definir esse valor para -0,1 mm reduz o seu modelo em 0,1 mm nas direções X e Y. Essa configuração funciona melhor quando o erro dimensional é consistente, mesmo ao imprimir modelos de tamanhos diferentes. Por exemplo, se a peça tiver sempre 0,1 mm de largura a mais, independentemente de o modelo ter 20 mm de largura ou 100 mm de largura, essa configuração poderá facilmente explicar essa diferença.

Aumentar o erro dimensional

Se perceber que o erro dimensional tende a aumentar à medida que imprime peças maiores, há uma configuração diferente que pode ser ajustada. Por exemplo, se a impressão ficou 0,1 mm mais pequena que a largura original de 20 mm, mas outra de 100 mm de largura ficou apenas 0,5 mm mais pequena, é provável que o problema seja devido à contração térmica. Isso pode ser um problema comum para materiais de alta temperatura como o ABS, pois o plástico tende a encolher à medida que arrefece.

Alguns programas incluem várias opções para ajudar nisso. Primeiro, é necessário determinar a percentagem de contração. No exemplo acima, a peça encolheu 0,1 mm numa impressão de 20 mm, portanto a percentagem de encolhimento é de 0,1 / 20 = 0,5%. A maneira mais fácil de corrigir esse erro é aumentar a escala da sua peça para 100,5%. Se fizer essas alterações de forma consistente, também pode configurar uma Ação de importação para executar esse dimensionamento automaticamente sempre que importar um novo modelo.

 

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